Tuesday, May 26, 2020

A Study On Substance Abuse - 1562 Words

When a client has a disorder, and goes to a therapist for help, would it make sense to help them using only one school of thought or many? In the past, and even some today, therapist were trained in one school of thought and so they only used techniques from that one school to treat their clients. Substance abuse does not just affect one category of people, and if we treat everyone as a 30 year old white upper class male/ female there are a lot of people we would be leaving out. Our country is rich in different cultures and ethnicities, with so many it is virtually impossible to treat them all with one set treatment method or technique. Some therapist realized a need for more diverse treatment methods and went on to get further training in other techniques, this led to what we now call eclectic and integrative psychotherapy. In these forms of therapy, the psychologist borrows from different approaches to therapy to better help a particular person. The integration of various schools o f psychotherapy has been in the making for several decades, the reason it took so long to be taken seriously is because of the competition between different schools. A good example of this is during Freudian times when there were meetings on psychoanalysis, during these meetings each therapist would claim that they had found the best treatment approach which caused arguments. These disagreements only multiplied once behaviorism was founded. One of the first attempts at combining techniques wasShow MoreRelatedThe Cost Of Substance Abuse In Canada Case Study966 Words   |  4 PagesThe cost of substance abuse in Canada is astronomical. According to the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA), in 2002 alcohol accounted for about $14.6 billion and illegal drugs for about $8.2 billion in social cost (Single, Robertson, Rehm, Xie, 2002). This cost was measured in terms of the burden on health care and law enforcement, and productivity in the workplace or home. Arguably, the greatest c ost may be immeasurable: human suffering and tragic loss of lives. This suffering is not limitedRead MoreSubstance Abuse In America Case Study780 Words   |  4 PagesSubstance abuse in America has gone to lengths such as reaching the rural Appalachian culture in West Virginia. Despite the Nationwide crisis and epidemic of 23 million individuals using, misusing and abusing substances West Virginia is currently unable to say that they are safe and that they have not been affected by this epidemic (Carpenter, Mcclellan, Rees, 2016). 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FULLER IN HONDURAS: sTREET CHILDREN AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE Organizations are continually faced with ethical dilemmas. Though each dilemma may vary in degree of impact they will have on a company, it is essential that a company establish a wise solution to the problem. As we have gathered from this course, there are a large varietyRead MoreA Qualitative Study of the Oglala Lakota Sioux: the Devastating Implication of Substance Abuse2579 Words   |  11 PagesUnit 5 A Qualitative Study of the Oglala Lakota Sioux: The Devastating Implication of Substance Abuse Submitted by Michael L. Albiston â€Å"I certify that I have read A Students Guide to Academic Integrity at the University of Oklahoma, and this paper is an original paper composed by me for this course. Except where properly cited and attributed, it has not been copied or closely reworded from any other source and has not been submitted as a whole, or in part, for credit in any other courseRead More Case Study: Impact on Children of Substance Abuse, Domestic Violence, and Mental Illness2706 Words   |  11 PagesStudies have shown that children who grow up in families where there is substance misuse, mental illness or domestic violence are more vulnerable to significant harm (Kendall-Taylor and Mikulak 2009).Children’s vulnerability usually stems from the effects of substance misuse, domestic violence or mental illness on parenting ability. Substance misuse, domestic violence and mental illness can result in parent’s finding it difficult to organize their lives to meet both their personal needs and theirRead MoreMindfulness Based Practices1079 Words   |  5 Pagesalternative treatment program for individuals with a substance abuse dependence. Substance abuse dependence often is correlated with increased stress, impulsivity, negative affect, cravings, and lowered mindfulness traits (Christopher, Ramsey, Antick, 2013; Vinici, Peltier, Shah, Kinsaul, Waldo, McVay, Copeland, 2014; Shorey, Brasfield, Anderson, Stuart, 2014). The development of mindfulness-based interventions for those diagnosed with substance abuse disorders has reported decreases in negative symptomsRead MoreAttention Deficit / Hyperactive Disorder ( Adhd )1166 Words   |  5 Pagesbetween ADHD to substance use and abuse, during childhood and adolescence, since it is such an important developmental stage in life. â€Å"Substance abuse disorder is defined as a physical dependence, abuse of, and withdrawal from drugs and other substances.† (Biederman, 1999) The prevalence of substance use and substance abuse in recent years is a cause for concern and has been a matter of public and scientific debate. 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Friday, May 15, 2020

Thomas Edisons Invention Factory in Menlo Park

Thomas Edison was behind the formation of the first industrial research laboratory, Menlo Park, a place where a team of inventors would work together to create new inventions. His role in forming this invention factory gave him the nickname the Wizard of Menlo Park. Menlo Park, New Jersey Edison opened a research laboratory in Menlo Park, NJ, in 1876. This site later become known as an invention factory, since Edison and his employees worked on several different inventions at any given time there. It was there that Thomas Edison invented the phonograph, his first commercially successful invention. The New Jersey Menlo Park laboratory was closed in 1882, when Edison moved into his new larger laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey. The Wizard of Menlo Park Thomas Edison was nicknamed The Wizard of Menlo Park by a newspaper reporter after his invention of the phonograph while at Menlo Park. Other important achievements and inventions that Edison created at Menlo Park included: A carbon button transmitter (aka microphone) and the induction coil that greatly improved the telephoneAn improved bulb filament and successful incandescent light bulbThe first underground electrical systemA prototype electric railway was constructed at Menlo ParkThe founding of the Edison Electric Light CompanyChristie Street in Menlo Park became the worlds first street to be lit by incandescent light bulbs.In fact, Menlo Park became a tourist attraction because of the novelty of lighting.Edison applied for over 400 patents for inventions made at Menlo Park. The Land of Menlo Park Menlo Park was part of rural Raritan Township in New Jersey. Edison bought 34 acres of land there in late 1875. The office of a former real estate company, at the corner of Lincoln Highway and Christie Street, became Edisons home. Edisons father built the main laboratory building on the block south of Christie Street between Middlesex and Woodbridge Avenues. Also built was the glass house, a carpenters shop, a carbon shed, and a blacksmith shop. By the Spring of 1876, Edison moved his full operations to Menlo Park.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Doctour of Physik Essay - 977 Words

Among the pilgrims in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales we find a Doctour of Physik (line 413). This doctor is the twenty first character mentioned in the General Prologue. He comes after a pirate and before a woman of dubious conduct, thereby making his good qualities appear considerably more honorable than they would if he, for instance, followed the knight or parson. The narrator speaks highly of the doctors scientific abilities and learned knowledge while also emphasizing his aptitude at his trade. There are, in addition, references to the doctors religious competence, or lack thereof. By emphasizing the doctors strengths and showing where his weaknesses lay, Chaucer uses him as the knights equal on an opposite pole.†¦show more content†¦In these lines: A Knight ther was, and that a worthy man, / That fro the time that he first bigan / To riden out, he loved chivalrye, / Trouthe and honour, freedom and curteisye. / Ful worthy was he in his lordes were, / And therto hadde he riden, no man ferre, / As wel in Cristendom as hethenesse, / And evere honoured for his worthinesse (43-50), we view the knights cause, fighting for his Lord in Christianity, which contrasts with the doctors cause, healing the human form. We also learn that the knight values thinks any honorable person would find worthy: truth, honor, freedom, and courtesy. This isnt to say that the doctor does not have these qualities at all, but his introduction is oriented less around chivalry and more around practicality. Thus, using a total of sixteen lines, Chaucer has placed both characters loyalties and motivations. The knights are with God, on the spiritual side of the pole, and the doctors are with the body, on the physical side. The benefits and faults of the doctors position are opposite the knights as well. While the knight is quite healthy spiritually, his physical health has been damaged by the many years of campaigning. While the doctor, continuing on in the vein of the physical, keeps himself in perfect health. For example, Of his diete mesurable was he, / For it was of no superfluitee, / But of greet norissing and digestible (437-439). By eating only healthy items and taking care to eat in

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Maze Runner free essay sample

Thomas, an Incidental Hero A hero is a person of distinguished courage or ability, who sacrifices himself for other people, and leads people through difficult situations. In the book, The Maze Runner, there were many heroes but Thomas was the most heroic character. Even though Thomas was a new member of the Glade, he demonstrated his courage, his self- sacrifice for the good of others, and leadership. Thomas possessed all of these heroic qualities and more. From the beginning of the book, Thomas was always courageous. Even though he lost his memory and did not know where he was, he did not break down, and he tried to adapt with the new environment. His first heroic act happened when he ran out of the Glade into the Maze to save Minho and the injured Alby, when they could not come back to the Glade before the Doors closed. Knowing that he had to stay in the Maze the whole night to fight against the Grievers, they were deadly mechanical monsters that came out at night to kill humans, Thomas was not concerned about his own safety. We will write a custom essay sample on Maze Runner or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page When Minho abandoned Thomas and Alby, instead of fleeing to save himself and leave Alby behind, Thomas pulled Alby off the ground and wrapped him with vines, to keep him away from the Grievers. Not only did Thomas help Alby get out of harm way, he ran the opposite way to distract the Grievers from finding Alby’s hiding spot. Thomas bravely fought the Grievers and tricked them to roll off the cliff. Thomas was kind, compassionate, and selfless. He befriended Chuck, a Slopper, a person who performed an unskilled job.Throughout the book, Thomas always cared and protected Chuck, because he was young, clumsy and unskilled. Thomas got along with most of the people in the Glade. Thomas always considered the wellbeing of the community before himself. He purposely got himself stung by the Grievers, so that he could regain his memory with the hope to find information from his past to help the Gladers to escape the Maze. Thomas witnessed Ben and Alby going through the painful and horrible change, but that did not deter him from letting the Grievers sting him.He also proposed to be killed by the Grievers as a distraction for the Gladers to escape from the Maze. One important trait of a hero is leadership. Throughout the book, Thomas demonstrated that he was an excellent leader. He was strong and brilliant. He figured out strategies to fight against the Grievers and the Creators. He led the Gladers to solve the code of the maze. At the end of the book, Thomas rallied all the boys to unite to fight against the Grievers and the Creators.Thomas diligently and smartly solved the mystery of the Maze and found the Griever Hole to lead everybody out of the Maze. Thomas was a true hero. He was a brave, kind, and strong leader. He saved Alby in the Maze. He was willing to sacrifice himself to save the whole community. He led the boys out of the Maze. Without Thomas, the Gladers would have been killed by the Grievers. Although Thomas was forced to be in the Glade without any preparation, he rose above the dangerous and difficult situation. He proved his bravery, his altruism, and leadership. Thomas had all the traits of a true hero.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Information Systems Management

Introduction Information communications technology is a general term that explains more about the integration of management systems. These systems include: intelligence, telecommunications and systems of audio-visual, which are currently used by information technology.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Information Systems Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It involves all the technical ways of handling information and enhancing communication. It consists of telephony, audio and video transmission, broadcast media, network-based monitoring and control functions. ICT can be viewed as the combination of audio, visuals and networks enhanced by a link system. Economic incentives that result from this merging of network systems are large as they promote cost saving and effective organizational growth. ICT in the UK: Public Services The UK government does not have effective information technology schemes. This i s as a result of low allocation of budget share to the ICT and public sector. However, the government has come up with a strategy, which is expected to deliver public services in a better way at low costs. The strategy involves sharing and re-use of ICT appliances. As stated by National Audit Office, (2007) this is intended to improve efficiency and productivity thereby reducing wastage and chances of project failure. Online transactions are scheduled to be opened for citizens and firms so as to promote policy debate and good collaboration during public service delivery. Supply of government ICT is focused in a way that small and medium organizations are allowed to participate in an attempt to reduce bureaucracy. This is facilitated by creation of common ICT infrastructure that is built on mandated common standards. Transparency is enhanced through publication of government contract’s details so as to attract the necessary attention from all interested enterprises. Current pr ediction of the UK’s public service ICT indicates that the sector is likely to experience a marginal decline. This is nothing compared to the wider cuts on spending, which should be reversed to ensure growth in a given short period of time. The total spending for 2010-11 financial year is estimated at 17.99 billion pounds. This is expected to decline in the next financial year to stand at 17.75 billion pounds and later a mild decline throughout 2012-13 financial year. The sequence will overturn and see the spending rise to 18.27 billion pounds in 2015-16 indicating an increase of 1.5%.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The processes of cutting operational costs bring about maintenance, increased spending on managed services as well as outsourcing. Rationalization of investment and infrastructure technology in the working of mobile is another form of saving. This contri butes positively to the hardware investment maintenance, offsetting of pressure so as to increase the lifespan of printers and Pcs resulting from the new spending on mobile devices. Cutting of government’s expenditure is seen as the main factor in use, but there has developed a new move to bring reforms in the public services. The reforms are expected to be initiated by the local government followed by radical reforms in health sector. This will generate a considerable ICT investment by reversing the current spending trend. Businesses of various government branches have been joined together after the central government engages itself in a quest to reduce spending. This will see it spending more on outsourcing and reducing the overall cost of ICT in Whitehall. Other departments such as defence, transport and criminal justice are also expected to recover slowly. Labour and conservative ways to technology Labour and conservative are two parties in the UK, which have persistent d ifferences in policy formulation and in the ways society should be shaped. The two parties have clashed in economic sector on the cause of deficit and the appropriate method of handling it. Conservatives condemned the growth of private debts, which were allowed by the Labour party. Butler, (1994) commented that the Labour opposed the review on spending and advocated for the need to delay cuts on expenditure. In the public service, the set plans to distribute power to GPs have received a description, which portrays it as a dangerous experiment when public spending is reduced. The parties have differed in the education sector where: the labour party have analyzed the idea of free schools critically and opposed the move to raise tuition fees in universities to 9000 pounds, the cutting of funding for school sports and the ending of EMA payments of 16-18 year old youths. The party has also opposed the planned educational reforms describing it as a backward move that makes the development strategies stagnant. Concerning the welfare reforms, the labour party has criticized the alleged move to cut housing benefits and elimination of child trust fund claiming that, it would cause poverty.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Information Systems Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Apart from having disagreements and distinct points of view, the two parties enhance democracy in various ways: They allow people to participate in elections freely, provide information to the public that might not otherwise be made public, enhance accountability and allow the existence of opposition to act as a watchdog. The parties have also shown unity of agendas assumed to be brought about by the internet. Both have taken common grounds on how the government requires change although from different philosophies. There is a developing consensus of the parties, which will enable the adoption of long-term reforms in te rms of state operations and its relationship with the citizens. Through their technological proposals, it is clear on how the two parties view the future status of the state. This is because they have capitalized on the internet as the only medium of communication between the citizens and the government. The internet is perceived to offer people a chance to reinvent democracy and enable them to make decisions thereby influencing public policy. The conservatives have also developed a competition that will create a platform of tapping wisdom and ideas of dealing with tough policy challenges. In the council of Barking and Dagenham, there is evident democracy in the way they hold elections and later form opposition. The mayor must be an existing councilor and assumes the role of conducting ceremonies in the borough. The council of Kensington and Chelsea has a united local government and a common town hall as well as administration. There is equal representation of all citizens in the co uncil governance signifying a well-developed democratic system. The council of Barnet has majority of councilor elected in the local government being conservatives. This has made them dominate the council and at times make decisions with no one to oppose. This also made them lose money in investments with a report showing that the procedures followed were not genuine. Comparison of other Government’s ICT with that of the UK The government of the UK has the worst IT schemes in terms of effectiveness. Ross, (2003) argued that comparing UK with governments such as Canada, Japan, New Zealand and US, the government of the UK lags behind in many ways. There is recorded poor performance of e-government and a series of failed ICT projects with most of them based on public sector. Allocation of contracts to a limited number of suppliers has caused problems in the UK. This has contributed to lack of expertise and poor ICT as compared to other nations.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Challenges of ICT For ICT to be fully adopted there must be affordable access created and infrastructure such as electricity which might not be there. Introducing ICT in education would mean a change in methods of teaching, re-training of teachers and added costs of purchasing new teaching equipment. As people continue using the ICT, their culture is likely to change with respect to the technology in use. ICT brings about dissemination of indigenous knowledge, which when published on the internet gets exploited without economic benefit to the poor owner. According to Cooke, (2007) most people with skills end up losing jobs and as ICT seem to create jobs; they are always different from the disappearing ones. ICT pollutes the environment since most of them contain toxic substances. Disposal of electronics waste proves a great challenge in waste management. Recommendations Establishment of government policies would give guidance to the procurement of ICT systems resulting to the involv ement of smaller companies in the business. Hall, (2010) suggested that, the government should provide enough ICT facilities in school to facilitate easy learning and adoption of e-learning. Proper waste management should be put in place in order to control environmental pollution. Political differences should be kept aside when it comes to formulation of development related policies so as to enhance unity in the process. Countries should define boundaries of what qualifies to be published in the internet. This would prevent exploitation of indigenous knowledge from poor people. Conclusion From the report it is evident that the government of the UK has undeveloped ICT system due to its practice of cutting ICT expenditure. The rivalry that existed between labour and conservatives greatly hindered development and adoption of ICT in the UK. The UK has a poor ICT system as compared to ICTs in other countries hence the call for improvement. There are many challenges related to ICT and th ey range from education, through cultural to economic well-being of the society. However, ICT can help countries tackle their health, social and economic problems leading them to the realization of millennium goals. References Butler, G. (1994). British Political Facts, 1990-1994, UK: Macmillan publishers. Cooke, P. (2007). Regional knowledge economies market, cluster and innovation, Cheltenham: Edward Edgar. Great Britain: National Audit Office. (2007). improving the Disposal of Public Sector Information, Communication and Technology. UK: The stationary office. Hall, D. (2010). The ICT handbook for Primary teachers: a guide for students and professionals, UK: CRS press. Ross, S. (2003). Britain since 1930, UK: Evans publishing group. This report on Information Systems Management was written and submitted by user Sph1nx to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Bimetallism Definition and Historical Perspective

Bimetallism Definition and Historical Perspective Bimetallism  is a monetary policy wherein the value of a currency is linked to the value of two metals, usually (but not necessarily) silver and gold. In this system, the value of the two metals would be linked to each other- in other words, the value of silver would be expressed in terms of gold, and  vice versa- and either metal could be used as legal tender.   Paper money  would then be directly convertible to an equivalent amount of either metal- for example, U.S. currency used to explicitly state that the bill was redeemable â€Å"in gold coin payable to the bearer on demand.† Dollars were literally receipts for a quantity of actual metal held by the government, a holdover from the time before paper money was common and standardized. History of Bimetallism From 1792, when the  U.S. Mint was established, until 1900, the United States was a bimetal country, with both silver and gold recognized as legal currency; in fact, you could bring silver or gold to a U.S. mint and have it converted into coins. The U.S. fixed the value of silver to gold as 15:1 (1 ounce of gold was worth 15 ounces of silver; this was later adjusted to 16:1). One problem with  bimetallism  occurs when the face value of a coin is lower than the actual value of the metal it contains. A one-dollar silver coin, for example, might be worth $1.50 on the silver market. These value disparities resulted in a severe silver shortage as people stopped spending silver coins and opted instead to sell them or have them melted down into bullion. In 1853, this shortage of silver prompted the U.S. government to debase its silver coinage- in other words, lowering the amount of silver in the coins. This resulted in more silver coins in circulation. While this stabilized the economy, it also moved the country towards  monometallism  (the use of a single metal in currency)  and the  Gold Standard. Silver was no longer seen as an attractive currency because the coins were not worth their face value. Then, during the  Civil War, hoarding of both gold and silver prompted the United States to temporarily switch to what’s known as â€Å"fiat money.† Fiat money, which is what we use today, is money that the government declares to be legal tender, but thats not backed or convertible to a physical resource like metal.  At this time, the government stopped redeeming paper money for gold or silver. The Debate After the war, the  Coinage Act of 1873  resurrected  the ability to exchange currency for gold- but it eliminated the ability to have silver bullion struck into coins, effectively making the U.S. a Gold Standard country. Supporters of the move (and the Gold Standard) saw stability; instead of having two metals whose value was theoretically linked, but which  in fact fluctuated because foreign countries often valued gold and silver differently than we did, we would have money based on a single metal that the U.S. had plenty of, allowing it to manipulate its market value and keep prices stable. This was controversial for some time, with many arguing that a â€Å"monometal† system limited the amount of money in circulation, making it difficult to obtain loans and deflating prices. This was widely seen by many as benefiting the banks and the rich while hurting farmers and common people, and the solution was seen to be a return to â€Å"free silver†- the ability to convert silver into coins, and true bimetallism. A Depression and a  panic in 1893  crippled the U.S. economy and exacerbated the argument over bimetallism, which came to be seen by some as the solution to all of the United States’ economic troubles. The drama peaked  during the  1896 presidential election. At the National Democratic Convention, eventual nominee  William Jennings Bryan  made his famous  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Cross of Gold†Ã‚  speech  arguing for bimetallism. Its success gained him the nomination, but Bryan lost the election to  William McKinley- in part because scientific advances coupled with new sources promised to increase the supply of gold, thus alleviating fears of limited money supplies. The Gold Standard In 1900, President McKinley signed the  Gold Standard Act, which officially made the United States a monometal country, making gold the only metal you could convert paper money into. Silver had lost, and bimetallism was a dead issue in the U.S. The gold standard persisted until 1933, when the  Great Depression  caused people to hoard their gold, thus making the system unstable; President Franklin Delano Roosevelt  ordered all gold and gold certificates to be sold to the government at a fixed price, then Congress changed the laws that required settlement of private and public debts with gold, essentially ending the gold standard here. The currency remained pegged to gold until 1971, when the â€Å"Nixon Shock† made then U.S. currency fiat money once again- as it has remained since.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Famous Leader - Margaret Thatcher EX-Prime Minister of Great Britain Essay

Famous Leader - Margaret Thatcher EX-Prime Minister of Great Britain - Essay Example People often described Thatcher using terms such as decisive, determined, iron willed and confident. These terms typify Thatcher’s inherent leadership traits, thereby, affirming the trait theory of leadership. â€Å"Trait theory of leadership differentiates a leader from a non-leader by concentrating on the individual’s inherent characteristics and qualities† (Northouse, 2012, p. 65). Thatcher further demonstrated numerous behaviors that distinguished her from other leaders. These behaviors included a desire to lead, integrity, intelligence, job related knowledge and self confidence. Although the trait theory of leadership is a viable approach to people’s leadership attributes, the approach has certain limitations, for instance, there are no collective traits, which envisage leadership under all situations. Traits essentially foretell people’s behaviors, particularly in the context of adverse situations rather than constructive situations. Such limi tations have pushed researchers to advocate the consideration of alternative leadership theories. This paper will examine Margaret Thatcher’s leadership traits, skills and behaviors in the context of the traits theory of leadership. ... Effective leaders also have the capacity to appreciate how they can attain their objectives. Leadership traits or qualities differentiate leaders from followers. Thatcher had the aforementioned characteristics, which differentiated her as an effective leader. Some of Thatcher’s most notable leadership traits include courage and resolution, self-confidence and decisiveness. Thatcher’s courage was evidenced by her throwing herself into politics; a male dominated field in which women were not welcomed. Thatcher showed courage and resolution through her single-minded passion to fight off her opposition. Notably, Thatcher had the drive to confront her enemies. Thatcher also demonstrated exceptional conviction and confidence, which enabled her to remain in power. In the course of Thatcher’s premiership, Britain’s unemployment rates rose rapidly. However, Thatcher’s conviction allowed her to offer persuasive arguments, for instance, that a tightly-bound ec onomy would offer future benefits. The mammoth patriotic enthusiasm that followed Thatcher facilitated her persuasive tendencies. Thatcher’s conviction further exemplified her decisiveness. She did not follow multitudes but rather made her own decisions and stuck to her choices. This decisiveness is primarily notable in Thatcher’s successful repulsion of Falkland Islands by Argentina. Thatcher’s decisiveness is also evident from her introduction of an internal market to the nation’s health care sector. Thatcher was a notable champion of capitalism and free markets. Leadership Skills Thatcher had many leadership skills through which she engaged with her followers. Notably, she had transformative skills as she always engaged her followers in processes of